The Creature

English author Mary Shelley was the mother of science-fiction genre and an unlikely heroine of the horror fiction genre. In the early 19th century, Mary traveled through Europe with her future husband Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and John Polidori. They traveled along the River Rhine in Germany and had a stop in Gernsheim which is about 15 km away from Frankenstein Castle, where, two centuries before, an alchemist was allegedly engaged in sinister experiments. Later on their journey, they traveled in the region of Geneva in Switzerland where the topic of galvanism (contraction of a muscle stimulated by the electric current) was the latest fade due to the recent discovery of electrical current and its role in the human body.

The group decided to have a competition to see who could write the best horror story. Several days after the wager, Mary had a dream about a scientist who created life and was horrified by what he made. Mary said that this dream was the inspiration for her novel “Frankenstein”, one of the best horror stories ever and the first true science-fiction novel ever.

“Frankenstein” is the novel about young scientist Victor Frankenstein coming from a wealthy family who created an artificial creature – the Creature – that turned against his own creator. The story revolves around “mystic” scientific experiments, creating life from the non-living matter, and ultimate evil and perversion of such life.

It is the story I absolutely love and love to read. The novel was much ahead of its time, the writing style is superb, characters are interesting and the story is griping. It is the work of art that keeps you on the edge, entertains you while making you feel uneasy. It is a horror story after all.

It is also the story I absolutely hate. Not because of the story, but because of the lasting impact this story has. While imagined as a fictional horror story, most people treat Frankenstein novel as a documentary novel which documents futility of scientific progress, corruptness of science and ultimate evil of what comes ahead of us.

To summarize, I love the story itself but I do profoundly resent its impact on public opinion, as it is grossly misunderstood novel. And the story of the Creature (that most people call Frankenstein) is very popular nowadays.

It is especially popular in the debate concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO). The newly coined term “Frankenfood” is heard more often than not, projecting (on purpose) irrational fear of unleashing unthinkable evil upon the world by using genetically modified plants, animals and microorganisms. It is with a picture of The Creature that various organizations (varying from religious institutions to so called environment protectionists) sow fear and distrust towards organisms created using tools of modern molecular biology.

So, what’s the big deal with genetically modified organisms? Why are they the topic of THE most heated public debate all around the world for the last 30 years? Why do people fear this technology? How did humanity feed itself through the history, and why do we need (if we need) this technology today? How is humanity using this technology today, and what does the future hold for the genetically modified organism? This is the topic I will write about in this and future posts.

Personally, I believe that the most significant number of people who distrust GMOs and are afraid of GMOs distrust and fear GMOs because they are fundamentally not educated enough. I am NOT stating that they are stupid or ignorant, or that they cannot be educated, I am simply stating that this group of people have not received, up to this point, the most basic education in biology of human body, or biology in general.

To start off with, anti-GMO group does not understand even how digestion works. I was shocked, on more occasions than I would like to admit, when I was talking to people fighting the introduction of GM food how little they knew about the inner workings of human body. I did not know whether to cry, laugh or both when I was told that by changing the DNA of an organism that is being eaten our own DNA will be changed and “god knows what will happen to us then”. Upon first conversation of such sort, I personally thought that that one man was crazy, but surely other members of community engaged in these discussions know better. How wrong I was.

First of all, DNA is a static element of heredity – it does not change on purpose by itself at absolutely no occasion. DNA can be changed only in two occasion. First are random mutations, which happen all the time, and most of them are repaired by our own inner mechanism of DNA repair. Mutations are random and are caused by accident, that is, by DNA replicating machinery not being perfect. Most mutations that are not repaired are either dormant mutations that have no effect on human body, while the rest of mutations are either “bad” mutations that lead to cancer or other diseases, or “good” mutations that have some beneficial effect to a man and its offspring. We have absolutely no control over these mutations, we cannot induce it, except by treating people with excessive amount of radioactive emission (e.g. nuclear waste emissions, Chernobyl disaster). The only other way to change human DNA is by retrovirus exposure. Those viruses insert their own DNA into host cell (e.g. human T4 lysozyme cell) and use the hosts’ machinery to replicate its DNA. That is the way HIV virus work, for example.

Second of all, DNA by itself does absolutely nothing in the cell. It is simply a material that other parts of the cell use as a template for proteins. By its composition, DNA is an acid – deoxyribonucleic acid.

To make the picture clear, I will use this example: you want to bake a cake. You have absolutely no idea how to bake a cake. What do you do? You take a cookbook, find a recipe you fancy, buy ingredients which recipe requires, bake the cake following the recipe, and woila! A cake.

That exact thing happens in our bodies. DNA is the cookbook of a cell. The cook from the example (that is, you) is the RNA machinery (RNA + proteins regulating RNA) that reads the DNA, takes the necessary information (what is necessary and what is not is the topic of epigenetics), “buys” required ingredients (base pairs), brings the ingredients to the ribosome (the “oven” of a cell), and ribosome assembles (“bakes”) the protein (the cake). That is, in the simplest possible form, that. All other “nuances” are topic of cellular biology, and each little detail in the story is a field of science by itself.

As you can see, DNA does absolutely nothing. It is a passive component of the cell. Proteins control DNA replication, DNA repair, shape (state of condensation) of DNA, etc., and RNA machinery is the link between DNA and proteins. Proteins do everything else in the cell as well. Proteins can be defined in the simplest way as a working class of the cell and of all life on Earth. Energy your cells have, functions your individual cells have, structural integrity of your cells, communication between and inside your cell – all that and much, much more is done by proteins. They do absolutely everything in every cell, and proteins are the final expression of DNA.

Composition of every cell can be summed in five main components: water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates (sugars) and everything else.

Proteins are, as stated before, the main actors of life.

Fats and carbohydrates are mostly used as energy source, but they are also essential for structural integrity of the cell. For instance, every cellular wall is built mostly from phospholipids bilayer and cholesterol (that is, fats).

Everything else is contained in traces. We would not be able to live without those elements (e.g. minerals, vitamins, DNA is an acid, etc.) but most of those elements cannot be found in the abundance. One notable exception here are fibers, and then only in some plants, and plants only.

Now, let’s get back to our food.

Remember those labels on the food you’re buying? Yes, the one that list how many calories per serving there is, how many grams of protein per 100 g does you food contain etc. You can see on those labels that the great majority of your meal contains of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. These components are what your body digests and what your body stores.

So, how digestion and metabolism function?

First of all, digestion and metabolism are two completely separate processes.

Digestion is the process of getting the food in your body and getting unprocessed food out of your body. Its main role is to mechanically (by chewing) and physically (using stomach acid) break down big chunks of food you eat, bring it to the inner intestines, let intestines do its job and take the nutrients it can process, and then excrete what is left out. What happens in the intestines and then in the blood, and then in the other organs is the job of metabolism.

Metabolism is the process of breaking that food down to the simplest building blocks – that process is called catabolism – and storing these building block and then using them to assemble every molecule of your cells – that process is called anabolism. Catabolism and anabolism together form metabolism. There are three main purposes of metabolism, and those are the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food to building block for proteins, lipids (fats), nucleic acids (building blocks for RNA and DNA), and carbohydrates (sugars), and elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolism allows us to grow and reproduce, maintain our structure, and respond to our environment.

Every food you ever ate and every food you will ever eat was and will be disassembled to its most basic components and all proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA of your body was and will be assembled within your body, using your own cellular infrastructure. All carbohydrates you ever ate and you will eat were disassembled and will be disassembled to glucose, fructose or galactose. That means that every potato, corn, wheat, and soybean you ever ate was disassembled to glucose. No matter whether potato came from USA, France, Poland or Croatia. No matter whether that potato was grown “organically” or industrially. To your metabolism, all potatoes are the same and all hold virtually the same nutritional value. Every citrus you ever ate was to you body just a big ball of water with a lot of sugar and some vitamins and fibers in it. All meat you ever ate was a bunch of proteins and fat to your body. And everything was disassembled, stored in your body and used by your body, when needed, as energy or building blocks for our own proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Knowing and understanding these facts renders most of the GMO vs. anti-GMO discussion unnecessary. Knowing and understanding these facts also exposes raw food advocates as simple scams, but I will devote separate blog post to this topic.

So, how does GM food fit into all of this?

To start off with, according to the World Health Organization, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. The technology is often called ‘modern biotechnology’ or ‘gene technology’, sometimes also ‘recombinant DNA technology’ or ‘genetic engineering’. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.

Genome is changed not because of the DNA itself; new genes are inserted, or genes inherently present in the organism are deleted, in order to change the proteins in the organism of interest. The idea is to change proteins in the organism of interest. And all proteins, absolutely all proteins you eat, are disassembled in your body to its most basic building blocks. Therefore, even in its idea and theory, digestion and metabolism of the GM food is absolutely identical to the digestion and metabolism of non-GM food. There can be no safety issue for human health arising from the introduction of the GM food to our diet.

Genetic engineering is a tool just like any other, just like a hammer is a tool, just like a dynamite is tool. Using genetic engineering, scientists can take any trait from organism A and implant that trait into organism B. It does nothing less, and nothing more. Just like any trade and industry, it takes a lot of knowledge and experience to deliver perfect merchandise, in this case plant, animals or microbes. And just like in any industries, there are companies and individuals that are in the business of genetic engineering because they want to change the world and make it a better and safer world. There are companies and individuals who are in this business to make money, and there there are companies and individuals who are in this business to make money the dirty way.

If we take the example of dynamite, its inventor, Alfred Noble, invented it to make the mining industry safer. Instead of sending hundreds of workers with pickaxes in claustrophobic holes to build tunnels and extract the ore, or sending hundreds and thousands of workers to collapse buildings – manually, you could just send a couple of workers with these funny looking sticks and make the job fast, easy and without casualties. Alfred Noble intended to use dynamite solely in non-violent, commercial activities, and Noble saved untold thousands of lives with his invention.

Much to Nobles’ dismay, other people concluded that dynamite can be used for other things, not only non-violent and commercial activities.

Armies started to use dynamite in defensive and offensive actions, but bandits also started using dynamite in train robberies and bank heists.

The same argument hold in the business of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering itself is a noble mission to better the world, and most scientist envision a better, safer, cleaner and better fed world than it is today. Unfortunately, GMOs can be abused, just like dynamite.

I just ask of all of you reading this not to put the sign of equation between bank robber and a dynamite stick.

As I figured out that this topic cannot possibly be covered in just one blog post (it would be more of a blog booklet), I decided to make this post a multi-part series. In the next blog post, I will write more about GMO usage and what business models are used in the business of genetic engineering. I will also start debunking anti-GMO arguments, one by one.

The Silence of the Lambs

Think of your special, happy places and your happy memories. Birthday parties, Christmas family dinners, weddings, romantic dinners with your partner, fancy company dinners… These are all special events and everyone celebrates them in their own, special ways. Some like their birthday parties quiet and intimate, some like them big and rowdy, some people like small weddings, while other people like their weddings to be a fairytale-like events with 600 people on board. But all of these events have two things in common: that special feeling of happiness and meat consumption.

Just think about it: have you ever been to a special event that didn’t have some exquisite meat meal? Every household has its own special recipes for their special occasions and they mostly revolve around special (read as costly) piece of meat that family eats once or twice a year. It is in human nature to associate big, fat, juicy (and costly) piece of meat with a sense of accomplishment and happiness, all the way back to prehistoric era.

The best hunter, the man who could bring home the most and the best meat (or meat carcass), was always the leader of the tribe; kings, pharaohs, emperors and leaders of all kinds celebrated their power with unending feasts that included a lot of sex and a lot of meat. Public displays of sexual or sexualized acts and food (mostly meat) abundance were always used (and still are) to showcase ones power and satisfy primordial survival instincts.

Throughout the history, any kind of meat was considered to be a luxury. Situation changed dramatically in the second halve of 20th century. Until then, meat was consumed only in those special events I mentioned in the opening of this blog-post. Staple of human nutrition was made of dairy products, wheat products such as bread or wheat porridge, stews made from cabbage, beans, potatoes or other available vegetable. Typical person ate less than fifty meat meals in their entire life. That is two to three weeks of meat consumption average person consumes today. So, why was meat such a luxury in times past and what made transition from meat-as-a-luxury to meat-as-an-everyday-commodity possible?

Common people lived in autarchic communities – each household, each farmstead had to provide every necessity for itself. Each household had to grow its food, process its food, make its own clothes, building materials, weapons etc. In those conditions, if you wanted to grow pigs, cows, sheep, chicken or any other animal, you had to build a special building for them, feed them with food you grew yourself, nurture them, kill them, process them in special buildings you had to build, treat them with spices that were extremely expensive at that time and store them in, again, specialized building for that – remember, there were no fridges back then. As you can see, it was a time consuming process that required a lot of ones effort and material investment. As a result, most people kept a couple of chickens (for their eggs) and a couple of sheep (for their milk and their wool). Some people grew rabbits for their meat. Owning one cow or one fully grown pig was medieval equivalent of owning an upmarket sedan like Mazda 6 or VW Passat nowadays.

Technological innovation of the 19th and 20th century, sociological changes that occurred during industrial revolutions (population moving from villages to great cities) and economic revolution (wide adoption of free market economy) ended autarchic communities and gave rise to the civilization of specialized individuals organized in nuclear families. With emergence of specialized manufactures and factories, with specialized bureaucratic machinery, with emergence of blue collar and white collar jobs, farming and husbandry became specialized, industrial activities. Law of the big numbers did its thing and farming output started to grow exponentially. Introduction of internal-combustion and electrical machinery gave birth to corporate farming and that transition made abundance of fruits, vegetables and meat reality we live in today. There are arguments if corporate farming industry is a good or bad thing, but reality is that without those great corporations operating in a free market economy, we would still live in a world where any kind of meat is a luxury and our diet would consist of season-available fruits and vegetables.

So, how does the husbandry look like today?

Most of our food comes from great, unending agricultural fields, be it from French and Ukrainian wheat-lands, USA Midwest with stretches of hundreds and hundreds of kilometers of farmlands and husbandry fields, Chinese or Argentinian steppes. Most of your food doesn’t come from some farmer that has two cows and five sheep, the food on your table is an end result of a fine tuned global industrial process. But is that whole process sustainable and ethically acceptable?

I will not go into the discussion whether meat consumption is an ethically acceptable or not, it really depends on your religious background, your empathy, desire to eat meat and plethora of other subjective reasons. I do not want to discuss these matters, I want to talk about science, about objectively measurable facts on the subject of sustainability of modern husbandry, whether there is a problem and what would solution to the problems, if there are any, be. I am using data collected mostly from USA, and I apologize for all the gallons and pounds mentioned in this post. The emphasis of this post is not on the actual numbers but on the orders of magnitude and ratios. I would like to point to the fact that the country that has the most “invisible” and lightweight bureaucratic system in the Western world has the most complete and up-to-date data on just about anything.

These are the facts about modern husbandry and agriculture.

Our food consumption is killing this planet, and this way of life, this way of growing our food is completely unsustainable. The data is irrefutable, the amount of evidence is overwhelming. In the face of this data, will I, and the most of the population, give up on meat diet?

To tell you the truth, no.

The fact is that we do eat too much meat and the amount of meat that we consume can certainly come down. We do not need to consume meat for breakfast, lunch and dinner, one meat meal a day is certainly enough. If all people on the Earth would cut down their meat consumption to one healthy meat meal per day, environmental damage of husbandry would certainly be diminished. However, in the face of growing population numbers, continuation of desertification of our planet and increase of living standard in the Third world, no amount of meal-size decrease would stop us from driving ourselves to the complete and utter doom.

Would going back to the roots save us, as “environment-friendly” groups such as Greenpeace suggest? Would complete disbandment of modern agricultural industry (usage of pesticides, herbicides, GM crops, etc) save the planet?

Well, it would certainly make humans healthier. If a large portion of the population would start to farm again, without using the pesticides, herbicides or fungicides for their crops, without using antibiotics in raising their animals, we would eliminate a significant portion of the chemical pollution we’re causing today.

Most of the Earth’s population would starve as well. Personally, I don’t consider that solution to be most effective or the most happy one. Advocates of going-back-to-the-roots idea suggest then that we should just farm more land. That means that more forests, more swamps, more coastlines would have to be destroyed. As I pointed out earlier in this text, our ecosystem is on the point of breaking and we’re facing complete and utter loss of biodiversity as is. To further accelerate habitat destruction is no less than signing a death sentence to the entire humanity.

The next question is, what can we do? Can we save ourselves without going vegan?

Luckily, we can. And the solution for these problems is the whole reason why I started to write about this issue.

You see, there is a new revolution brewing right in front of our eyes, and it coming from the field that had nothing to do with agriculture or husbandry. Using the same techniques that are used in tissue building and 3D printing of the human organs from stem cells, we could theoretically grow animal meat and hide from animal stem cells. Take a vial of bovine (cow) stem cells and grow 100 pounds of beef in a matter of days, using nothing else than a container full of water, some hormones and a vial of bovine stem cells. Sound like science fiction?

Well, it was up until 2013 when a team of scientists made a hamburger-from-a-tube, first in vitro hamburger. A famous chef made the burger, the public could taste it and rate it and it was a smashing success. There was just one, small detail that still made in vitro burgers a topic of science fiction – that one small burger cost 250 000 €. That was about 300 000$. Nobody actually expected that in vitro meat will be commonplace in our lifetime.

And everybody was wrong. In just a year, the scientist managed to greatly optimize the process and they made a new public tasting event. This time, the burger did not cost 300 000 $. The cost of the burger was just 11$, or 80$ per kilogram of in vitro meat. The best part is that they can now produce over 10 000 pounds (over 5 000 kg) from just one small piece of meat.

Let that sink in.

Today, we have the technology not just to increase our husbandry output for 10% without causing environmental destruction, we have the technology to increase our meat production by 5 000 times, that is 5 000 000% (five million percent) without causing further environmental damage.

We are entering the new era of food production.

Welcome to the era of cellular agriculture.

There is a growing momentum in the scientific world regarding research and optimization of in vitro meat production. Plethora of research groups and organizations are doing their best to bring the artificial meat to our tables as soon as possible. There is a lot of hard work to be done, but in vitro meat will be a commonplace commodity in our supermarkets by the middle of this century.

And it is not just about the meat. We can already make perfect milk without cow or sheep, we can make (real) animal hide and leather without killing any animal and we can produce eggs without chickens.

With the birth of cellular agriculture, we once again have the possibility of growing healthy food for everyone without killing the planet and decimating species. We no longer need to slash jungles and rain-forests, we no longer need to pollute our air, water and soil with tonnes and tonnes of antibiotics. We can make Earth a healthy, vibrant planet once again and we can do it in our lifetime.

I fully expect Luddite-like organizations to raise up against the in vitro meat, I fully expect those you’re-playing-God(s) nonsensical argumentation and I fully expect that road from industrial agriculture to cellular agriculture will be a rough one. You can count that I will fight with every fiber of my being for cellular agriculture. And the reason for that is pretty clear; there are only 3 viable options regarding our future food production: (1) we will either continue to do what we’re doing today and kill our planet (and us with it) in the next 100 years, (2) we will revert to the “organic” farming and let majority of the world population to starve to death, or (3) we will embrace scientific advancements and make our planet a better place to live on, without sacrificing our modern way of life.

We all have that same choice.

Hello World!

Hello World!

That might be the most generic greeting in the world. Every computer scientist, web specialist, database administrator and, lately, every kid that is remotely tech savvy programmed it in multiple computer languages as its first tutorial. Yet I chose it to be the greeting in my first blog post ever. I consider it to be one of the most empowering greeting ever and one that evokes most beautiful memories one person can have. For most of you, simple “Hello World!” evokes the memory of when you programmed your first program, your first masterpiece, one of the first thing that made you feel powerful and proud, and it was probably one of those aha-moments and wow-moments in your life. So I cannot think of the more appropriate greeting for this occasion.

Yes, I decided to write a blog despite swearing that I never will write one. It was in a time when blogs filled the role of todays Facebook or Twitter, when blogs were mostly hurt teenagers diary and litanies of doomed loves or other world shattering problems of 12-year olds. Meanwhile, blogs matured and we had matured with it. Heartbreaking drama of 13-year old girls has moved to Facebook, Twitter and other services I have already lost track of, while blogs became special, very personal form of education, communication and news-sharing place. In the world where we’re flooded with bits of informations, but the picture as a whole is blurred more often than not, in the world where communication was never easier, people have lost the ability to properly communicate. What is even more frightening, people have lost the will to communicate. To really communicate, to exchange ones views, opinions and/or facts, to appreciate different viewpoint. We as a society have became a mass of entrenched, bickering people with depth and knowledge about our world that can fit as a logo on a T-shirt. In such a world, blogs became lighthouses of knowledge, a place where enthusiast and people of good will invest their time (a lot of their time, I might add) to be a positive change and to influence small part of their, and our, world for the better. One of the best examples might be WaitButWhy blog. There is no better place to spend your extra time on. Honestly.

I can thank Vedran Miletic for talking me into writing this blog. I will be writing about the things I consider I’m well versed in and the goal of this blog will be to bring scientific topics (mostly pharmaceutical science) closer to you. I might wander off into some general topics over time, but I will tend to write about the things that are my profession and bring them closer to all of you.

My first story will be about all the hustle and bustle with Daraprim and Turing Pharmaceuticals. I believe that this event should be given a proper context and thorough background check. More on that in the following week.

‘Till then,